Types of Cancer

bladder-cancer

Bladder Cancer

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer is cancer that begins in the bladder. The bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it leaves the body.

The bladder wall is made of several layers. Most bladder cancers begin in a layer called the urothelium, which lines the inside of the ureter, bladder, urethra and parts of the kidneys. Cancer may also develop in other types of cells in the bladder.

Bladder cancer incidence

Approximately 74,000 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2015, and an estimated 16,000 deaths will be due to bladder cancer, according to the American Cancer Society.

An estimated nine out of 10 people with bladder cancer are over age 55. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 73.

brain-cancer

Brain Cancer

What is brain cancer?

Primary brain cancer develops from cells within the brain. Part of the central nervous system (CNS), the brain is the control center for vital functions of the body, including speech, movement, thoughts, feelings, memory, vision, hearing and more.

Primary brain tumors are classified by the type of cell or tissue the tumor affects, and the location and grade of the tumor. Tumor cells may travel short distances within the brain, but generally won’t travel outside of the brain itself.

When cancer develops elsewhere in the body and spreads (metastasizes) to the brain, it’s called a secondary brain tumor, or metastatic brain cancer. Metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors. Some cancers that commonly spread to the brain include lung, colon, kidney and breast cancers.

Brain cancer incidence

Each year, over 190,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with a brain tumor (National Brain Tumor Society).

It is estimated that 22,850 new cases of brain and other nervous system cancers will be diagnosed in 2015, with the median age at the time of diagnosis being 58 (National Cancer Institute).

How brain cancer develops

The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer can begin in the CNS or, more commonly, it can spread there.

Primary brain tumors are tumors that form from cells within the brain. Not all primary brain tumors are the same. Primary brain tumors can be divided into malignant or benign tumors.

◾Benign primary brain tumors are not cancerous. They grow slowly, and tend to be more amendable to surgical or other treatments. However, benign brain tumors can still damage normal brain tissue and cause serious problems.

◾Malignant brain tumors are more aggressive by definition. They grow more quickly and invade local structures more aggressively.

Metastatic brain tumors are tumors that spread (metastasize) to the brain from another location in the body, such as the lung, colon, breast or kidney. Metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors.

breast-cancer

Breast Cancer

What is breast cancer?

Breast cancer is cancer that forms in cells of the breast. The breast consists of lobules (glands that make breast milk), ducts (small tubes that carry milk from the lobules to the nipple), fatty and connective tissue, blood vessels and lymph vessels.

The milk-producing ducts and glands are the two most likely areas to develop cancerous cells. In rarer cases, breast cancer begins in fatty tissues, also known as stromal tissues. Breast cancer may also occur in surrounding lymph nodes, especially those of the underarm.

Breast cancer incidence

According to the National Cancer Institute, one in eight women who live to be age 80 will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. This makes the disease the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women, after skin cancer. An estimated 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in women in the United States in 2015.

One in four cancers diagnosed in the U.S. is breast cancer, yet women are not the only ones receiving the diagnosis. Although the incidence of breast cancer is much less common among men, approximately 2,350 American men will learn they have breast cancer this year.

Breast cancer is one of the most highly publicized cancers in the media today. Local and national breast cancer awareness events are reminders of its prevalence. Many of us know someone who previously had or is currently battling breast cancer. Fortunately, advancements in breast cancer research provide new treatment options and technologies for those battling the disease.

ovairian-cancer

Cervical Cancer

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer begins in the cervix, the narrow organ at the bottom of the uterus that connects to the vagina. The cervix dilates during childbirth to allow for passage of a baby.

Types of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer starts when the cells that line the cervix begin to develop abnormal changes. Over time, these abnormal cells may become cancerous or they may return to normal. The majority of women do not develop cancer from abnormal cells.

There are two main types of cervical cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Each one is distinguished by the appearance of cells under a microscope.

◾Squamous cell carcinomas begin in the thin, flat cells that line the bottom of the cervix. This type of cervical cancer accounts for 80 to 90 percent of cervical cancers.

◾Adenocarcinomas develop in the glandular cells that line the upper portion of the cervix. These cancers make up 10 to 20 percent of cervical cancers.

Sometimes, both types of cells are involved in cervical cancer. Other types of cancer can develop in the cervix, but these are rare.

◾Metastatic cervical cancer is cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Cervical cancer symptoms

In most cases, cervical cancer does not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Routine Pap screening is important to check for abnormal cells in the cervix, so they can be monitored and treated as early as possible. Most women are advised to get a Pap test starting at age 21.

The Pap test is one of the most reliable and effective cancer screening methods available, and women should have yearly exams by an OB-GYN. However, the Pap test may not detect some cases of abnormal cells in the cervix. The HPV test screens women for the high-risk HPV strains that may lead to cervical cancer. It is approved for women over age 30.

Although screening methods are not 100 percent accurate, these tests are often an effective method for detecting cervical cancer in the early stages when it is still highly treatable. Talk with your doctor about which type of cervical cancer screening is right for you.

Cervical cancer risk factors

Infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. However, not all women with an HPV infection will develop cervical cancer.

Routine Pap testing is the best way to detect abnormal changes to the cervix before they develop into cancer. Because of this, women who do not regularly have a Pap test are at increased risk of developing the disease.

Cervical cancer risk factors

GENERAL

◾Pregnancy: Women who have had three or more full-term pregnancies, or who had their first full-term pregnancy before age 17, are twice as likely to get cervical cancer.

GENETICS

◾Family history: Women with a sister or mother who had cervical cancer are two to three times more likely to develop cervical cancer.

LIFESTYLE

◾Sexual history: Certain types of sexual behavior are considered risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV infection. These include: sex before age 18, sex with multiple partners and sex with someone who has had multiple partners. Studies also show a link between chlamydia infection and cervical cancer.

◾Smoking: A woman who smokes doubles her risk of cervical cancer.

◾Oral contraceptive use: Women who take oral contraceptives for more than five years have an increased risk of cervical cancer, but this risk returns to normal within a few years after the pills are stopped.

OTHER CONDITIONS

◾Weakened immune system: In most people with healthy immune systems, the HPV virus clears itself from the body within 12-18 months. However, people with HIV or other health conditions or who take medications that limit the body’s ability to fight off infection have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.

◾Diethylstilbestrol (DES): Women whose mothers took DES, a drug given to some women to prevent miscarriage between 1940 and 1971, have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.

◾HPV: Though HPV causes cancer, having HPV does not mean you will get cancer. The majority of women who contract HPV clear the virus or have treatment so the abnormal cells are removed. HPV is a skin infection, spread through skin-to-skin contact with a person who has the virus. Learn about the HPV vaccine to prevent HPV infections.

Additional facts about HPV:

◾There are more than 100 types of HPV, 30-40 of which are sexually transmitted.

◾Of these, at least 15 are high-risk HPV strains that can cause cervical cancer. The others cause no symptoms or genital warts.

◾Up to 80 percent of women will contract HPV in their lifetime. Men get HPV, too, but there is no test for them.

◾A healthy immune system will usually clear the HPV virus before there is a symptom, including the high-risk types of HPV.

◾Only a small percentage of women with high-risk HPV develop cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer risk factors

Infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. However, not all women with an HPV infection will develop cervical cancer.

Routine Pap testing is the best way to detect abnormal changes to the cervix before they develop into cancer. Because of this, women who do not regularly have a Pap test are at increased risk of developing the disease.

Cervical cancer diagnostics and treatment

At each of our hospitals, you’ll find innovative cervical cancer treatments and technologies—all under one roof. Our cervical cancer experts use state-of-the-art diagnostic tools, including advanced imaging and laboratory tests, to evaluate cervical cancer. This diagnostic evaluation takes about three to five days.

Then together, we develop a comprehensive cervical cancer treatment plan that works for you. Your individualized plan will include advanced medical treatments and technologies, combined with integrative oncology services to help reduce side effects and keep you strong in body, mind and spirit.

Cervical cancer risk factors

GENERAL

◾Pregnancy: Women who have had three or more full-term pregnancies, or who had their first full-term pregnancy before age 17, are twice as likely to get cervical cancer.

GENETICS

◾Family history: Women with a sister or mother who had cervical cancer are two to three times more likely to develop cervical cancer.

LIFESTYLE

◾Sexual history: Certain types of sexual behavior are considered risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV infection. These include: sex before age 18, sex with multiple partners and sex with someone who has had multiple partners. Studies also show a link between chlamydia infection and cervical cancer.

◾Smoking: A woman who smokes doubles her risk of cervical cancer.

◾Oral contraceptive use: Women who take oral contraceptives for more than five years have an increased risk of cervical cancer, but this risk returns to normal within a few years after the pills are stopped.

OTHER CONDITIONS

◾Weakened immune system: In most people with healthy immune systems, the HPV virus clears itself from the body within 12-18 months. However, people with HIV or other health conditions or who take medications that limit the body’s ability to fight off infection have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.

◾Diethylstilbestrol (DES): Women whose mothers took DES, a drug given to some women to prevent miscarriage between 1940 and 1971, have a higher risk of developing cervical cancer.

◾HPV: Though HPV causes cancer, having HPV does not mean you will get cancer. The majority of women who contract HPV clear the virus or have treatment so the abnormal cells are removed. HPV is a skin infection, spread through skin-to-skin contact with a person who has the virus. Learn about the HPV vaccine to prevent HPV infections.

Additional facts about HPV:

◾There are more than 100 types of HPV, 30-40 of which are sexually transmitted.

◾Of these, at least 15 are high-risk HPV strains that can cause cervical cancer. The others cause no symptoms or genital warts.

◾Up to 80 percent of women will contract HPV in their lifetime. Men get HPV, too, but there is no test for them.

◾A healthy immune system will usually clear the HPV virus before there is a symptom, including the high-risk types of HPV.

◾Only a small percentage of women with high-risk HPV develop cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer diagnostics and treatment

At each of our hospitals, you’ll find innovative cervical cancer treatments and technologies—all under one roof. Our cervical cancer experts use state-of-the-art diagnostic tools, including advanced imaging and laboratory tests, to evaluate cervical cancer. This diagnostic evaluation takes about three to five days.

Then together, we develop a comprehensive cervical cancer treatment plan that works for you. Your individualized plan will include advanced medical treatments and technologies, combined with integrative oncology services to help reduce side effects and keep you strong in body, mind and spirit.

all

Colorectal cancer

What is colorectal cancer?

Colorectal cancer is cancer that develops in the tissues of the colon and/or rectum. The colon and the rectum are both found in the lower part of the gastrointestinal (digestive) system. They form a long, muscular tube called the large intestine (or large bowel). The colon absorbs food and water and stores waste. The rectum is responsible for passing waste from the body.

If the cancer began in the colon, which is the first four to five feet of the large intestine, it may be referred to as colon cancer. If the cancer began in the rectum, which is the last several inches of the large intestine leading to the anus, it is called rectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer starts in the inner lining of the colon and/or rectum, slowly growing through some or all of its layers. It typically starts as a growth of tissue called a polyp. A particular type of polyp, called an adenoma, can then develop into cancer.

Colorectal cancer incidence

Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common form of cancer (or third, excluding skin cancers) in both men and women in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimated that 132,700 people will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in 2015.

stomach-cancer

Esophageal cancer

What is esophageal cancer?

Esophageal cancer occurs when the tissue that lines the esophagus becomes malignant. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach, allowing food to pass.

kidney-cancer

Kidney cancer

What is kidney cancer?

Kidney cancer occurs when a malignant tumor forms in the tissue of the kidney. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spine, protected by the lower ribcage. Their main function is to filter blood and remove excess water, salt and waste from the body. Although the body has two kidneys, only part of one kidney is necessary to function.

Kidney cancer incidence

According to the American Cancer Society, about 61,560 people will be diagnosed with kidney cancer in the United States in 2015. The risk of developing kidney cancer is 1 in 63 people, with men having a higher risk than women.

liver-cancer

What is liver cancer?

Liver cancer begins in the tissues of the liver, an organ that sits in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. The liver has many functions. It helps store nutrients from food, aids with digestion and clears toxins from the body.

Liver cancer incidence

Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with a high rate of incidence in Africa and Asia. Liver cancer is less common in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 35,660 new cases of liver cancer and intrahepatic bile duct cancer diagnosed in the United States in 2015.

Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with a high rate of incidence in Africa and Asia. Liver cancer is less common in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 35,660 new cases of liver cancer and intrahepatic bile duct cancer diagnosed in the United States in 2015.

lung-cancer

Lung cancer

What is lung cancer?

The lungs are two large organs made of spongy tissue, which lie above the diaphragm and under the rib cage. When you breathe in, your lungs absorb oxygen and deliver it to the bloodstream where it’s pumped throughout the body. When you exhale, the lungs remove carbon dioxide, a waste gas, from the bloodstream. Lung cancer interferes with this vital process and can make breathing more difficult.

Lung cancer incidence

Lung cancer is the second most common non-skin cancer among American men and women, after prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women. Smoking significantly increases a person’s chance of developing the disease, but people who have never smoked may develop lung cancer, too.

According to the American Cancer Society, the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is about 1 in 13 for men and 1 in 16 for women. In 2015, an estimated 221,200 people will be diagnosed with lung cancer in the United States.

black

Melanoma

What is melanoma?

Melanoma is a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes, specialized cells in the skin that produce the brown pigment known as melanin. These are the cells that darken when exposed to the sun, a protective response to protect the deeper layers of the skin from the harmful effects of the sun.

Melanoma is highly curable if caught early, but is much more likely than other forms of skin cancer to spread if left untreated.

Melanoma incidence

Melanoma accounts for approximately 2% of all skin cancers. The American Cancer Society, one of the country’s leading resources for cancer information, estimates that approximately 73,870 new cases of melanoma will be diagnosed in 2015, and the incidence rate is increasing.

The lifetime risk of developing melanoma is highest in Caucasians (1 in 40), while approximately 1 in 1,000 blacks and 1 in 200 Hispanics will develop this disease. While the risk of melanoma increases with age, it can occur in younger people, and is one of the more common cancers in young adults.

ovairian-cancer

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer begins in the ovaries, which are two almond-shaped glands located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and release eggs during a woman’s reproductive years (the time from her first menstrual period through menopause).

Ovarian cancer incidence

The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 21,290 new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed in the United States in 2015. Ovarian cancer is relatively rare. It is the seventeenth most common cancer in women, according to the National Cancer Institute.

pancreatic-cancer

Pancreatic cancer

What is pancreatic cancer?

Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive form of cancer that develops in the tissues of the pancreas. Located in the abdomen behind the lower part of the stomach, the pancreas aids in digestion.

It contains both exocrine glands (which produce enzymes that help the body digest food) and endocrine glands (which produce hormones, including insulin, that help control blood sugar levels in the body

Incidence

Pancreatic cancer is the ninth- or tenth-most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States. In 2015, an estimated 48,960 people will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society.

At CTCA, you’ll find cancer experts skilled in treating all stages and types of pancreatic cancer with advanced treatments and technologies.

prostate-cancer

Prostate cancer

What is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is cancer that begins in tissues of the prostate gland. Located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum, the prostate is the male sex gland responsible for the production of semen.

Fortunately, prostate cancer is one of the most treatable malignancies if it’s caught early. Routine screening has improved the diagnosis of prostate cancer in recent years. In addition, new and innovative technology helps to minimize the side effects of prostate cancer treatment, including incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

Prostate cancer incidence

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer found in American men, after skin cancer. The American Cancer Society estimates that there were roughly 192,280 new cases of prostate cancer in the United States in 2009. Nearly one in six men will develop prostate cancer in their lifetime; however, it is usually diagnosed after age 40.

black

Skin cancer

What is skin cancer?

Skin cancer is a broad term that refers to any type of cancer that begins in the cells of the skin. These cancers usually develop in the top layer of skin, also known as the epidermis.

The most common types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. In addition, there are several types of skin cancers that occur much less frequently, including kaposi sarcoma, merkel cell carcinoma, cutaneous (skin) lymphoma, skin adnexal tumors and various types of sarcomas.

Skin cancer incidence

Skin cancer is the most common of all cancers. Each year, more than 3.5 million Americans will be diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer, according to the American Cancer Society, and more than 73,000 melanoma cases will be diagnosed in 2015.

thyroid-cancer

Thyroid cancer

What is thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer is a form of cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located in the front of the throat, below the thyroid cartilage (also known as the Adam’s apple).

The thyroid gland produces several important hormones, including the thyroid hormone, which is involved in controlling body temperature, weight, energy level and heart rate. The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin, which helps the body use calcium.

Thyroid cancer incidence

The American Cancer Society estimates that 62,450 people in the United States will be diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2015. Compared with other common types of cancer, thyroid cancer occurs more frequently in younger patients with about 65 percent of cases occurring in people under the age of 55. Women are also approximately three times more likely to develop thyroid cancer than men.

uterine-cancer

Uterine cancer

What is uterine cancer?

Uterine cancer begins in the uterus, the hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis where a baby grows during pregnancy.

Uterine cancer incidence

The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 54,870 new cases of uterine and endometrial cancers diagnosed in the United States in 2015. Approximately 75 percent of these cancers are found in women over the age of 55.

luke

Leukemia

What is leukemia?

Leukemia is cancer that originates in blood-forming tissue. The disease is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes), in the bone marrow. White blood cells are a fundamental component of the body’s immune response. The leukemia cells crowd out and replace normal blood and marrow cells.

Incidence

In the United States, about 47,666 adults and 4,103 children, adolescents and young adults under 20 were diagnosed with leukemia in 2014 (Leukemia and Lymphoma Society). The most common types of leukemia in adults are AML and CLL. ALL is very rare in adults, and is the most common type of leukemia in children.

Leukemia incidences are more common in men and boys than girls and women, and also more likely to occur in white people than black. Although people of any age can get leukemia, it is most common in adults over 60 years of age.

Leukemia risk factors

Although the risk factors for, and causes of, leukemia are largely unknown, scientists have identified some possible risk factors to be aware of.

Leukemia symptoms

Many people often do not experience symptoms in the early stages of certain types of leukemia, or the symptoms develop slowly. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) progress much faster and symptoms may worsen more quickly than with the chronic leukemias (CML and CLL).

Some leukemia symptoms, like night sweats, fever, fatigue and achiness, often resemble flu-like symptoms. If you have the flu, symptoms will likely subside as you get better. Make an appointment to see your doctor if the symptoms persist longer than expected.

Leukemia stages

Making an educated treatment decision begins with the stage, or progression, of the disease. The stage of leukemia is one of the most important factors in evaluating treatment options.

Most cancers are staged based on the size and spread of tumors. However, because leukemia already occurs in the developing blood cells within the bone marrow, leukemia staging is a little bit different. The stages of leukemia are often characterized by blood cell counts and the accumulation of leukemia cells in other organs, like the liver or spleen.

bladder-cancer

Bone cancer

What is bone cancer?

Bone cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the cells of bones. As the supporting framework of the body, the bones provide structure and shape to the body, act as braces for muscles to produce movement and protect internal organs.

Most bones are hollow and consist of a hard outer portion (onto which calcium salts are deposited), a spongy inner tissue that contains bone marrow (which makes and stores blood cells) and cartilage at each end of the bone (which acts as a cushion between bones).

Despite its solid appearance, bone is a very active tissue that is constantly in the process of changing and remodeling. The bone itself contains three main types of cells that control this process: osteoblasts (which form new bone), osteocytes (which help maintain bone) and osteoclasts (which break down bone).

Bone cancer incidence

According to bone cancer information from the American Cancer Society, primary bone cancers account for less than 0.2 percent of all cancers, with approximately 2,970 new cases per year in the United States.

Cancer that begins in the bone (known as primary bone cancer) is not the same disease as cancer that starts in another part of the body and spreads (or metastasizes) to the bone (called secondary bone cancer). While it can occur in any of the bones of the body, primary bone cancer most often occurs in the long bones of the arms and legs.

Homestead Cancer Institute of Florida

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